A Grammar of Yami

9 Numbers
 9.1 Counting numbers
The Yami cardinal numbers from one to ten are presented as follows:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ása dóa tílo ápat líma ánem píto wáo síam póo

Numbers above ten are expressed “in fraction”. In other words, eleven is literally one out of the second ten, and twenty-two is two out of the third ten, as shown in the following left column. Multiples of ten, on the other hand, are expressed with the number followed by the linker a , and the unit of ten ngernan, as presented in the following right column.

11 asa so ikaroa (a ngernan) 60 anem a ngernan
22 adoa so ikatilo 70 apito a ngernan
33 atlo so ikapat 80 awao a ngernan
44 apat so ikalima 90 asiam a ngernan
55 alima so ikanem 100 asa a poo

Ordinals are prefixed with ika- except for ‘the first', which is expressed differently, as follows:

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth
nimanomá na ikadoa na ikatlo na ikapat na ikalima na ikanem na

Multiples are formed with ipi- , as follows:

Once Twice Three times Four times Five times Six times
ipisa ipidoa ipitlo ipipat ipilima ipinem

The concept for ‘only so and so much' is expressed by lengthening the final vowel of the numbers in either open or closed syllables, as follows:

Only one Only two Only three Only four Only five Only six
asáa adoáa atilóo apáat alimáa anéem

The concept that ‘such and such an amount is allocated to each unit' is expressed by prefixing tey- to the numbers, as follows. If the number begins with a vowel, the vowel is reduced to /e/, but if the number begins with a consonant, the initial CV- is reduplicated, as illustrated in (147)-(148):

One for each Two for each Three for each Four for each Five for each Six for each
teyesa teydedoa teytetlo teyepat teylilima teyenem

(147) namen tey-epat aka among.

1.P.NOM.EXCL each-four CON fish

‘We were allocated four fish.'

(148) sia tey-te-tlo so vanga.

3.P.NOM each-RED-three OBL pot

‘They were allocated three pots.'

The concept of ‘in a group of such and such a number' is expressed by prefixing tey- to the reduplicated root. The reduplication of the initial Ca- syllable is done twice, as in tey-ra-ra-roa ‘two in a group', as follows. More examples are provided in (149)-(150).

Group of two Group of three Group of four Group of five Group of six
teyrararoa teytatatilo teypapapat teylalalima teynananem

(149) tey-la-la-lima kamo a s-om-dep.

group-RED-Ca-five 2.P.NOM LIN <AF>enter

‘Come in in groups of five.'

(150) namen tey-pa-pa-pito do asa aka mibetbet.

1.P.NOM.EXCL group-RED-Ca-seven LOC one CON fishing.boat

‘We have seven people to a fishing boat.'