A Grammar of Yami

10 Prefix ka-
 10.1 Ka- as a verbal prefix
 10.2 Ka- as a nominal prefix
Ka- as a nominal prefix has the following five meanings:

(1) Ka- is added to nominal or verbal roots to express ‘company, co-', as in (156)-(159).

(156) ya abo o ka-kteh ko.

AUX no NOM Co-sibling 1.S.GEN

‘I have no brothers and sisters.'

(157) ka-raray ko ya ni-mi-vat-vatek do ilaod.

Co-company 1.S.GEN AUX PA-AF-RED-write LOC Taiwan

‘(This was my) classmate when (I) studied in Taiwan.’

(158) ko ni-yakan o ka-sisi no among.

1.S.GEN PA.PF-eat NOM Co-half GEN fish

‘I ate up half of the fish.’

(159) ka-kma si mina ama mo.

Co-like NOM late father 2.S.GEN

‘Damn! (You are like your late father).’

(2) Abstract nouns formed with ka- and reduplicated roots co-occur with kman ‘like' to express ‘as …as', as in (160)-(162).
(160) ya kman so zateb rana o ka-sire-sirem na.

AUX like OBL coal already NOM Co-RED-black 3.S.GEN

‘He is as dark as coal.’

(161) ya kman so tao-do-to so ka-pia-pia tao.

AUX like OBL god OBL Co-RED-good human

‘She is as beautiful as a goddess.’

(162) ya kman jiaken so ka-tav-tava.

AUX like 1.S.LOC OBL Co-RED-fat

‘He is as fat as I am.’

(3) Ka- prefixed with auxiliaries to or ji to form a nominalized construction with kato and kaji has been discussed in Section 6.2.3.

(4) Ka- is prefixed to reduplicated roots to form proper nouns, referring to animals named after the attributes signified by the roots, as in (163).

(163) ka- + reduplicated roots ‘animals named after certain features'

Animal names Gloss Root Gloss
ka-vokovokot worm vokot spine
ka-lalavi cicada lavi cry
ka-gozagozang lizard gozang thin
ka-pozopozo clam pozo small round object with rough surface

(5) The circumfix ka-an is used to form common nouns, as in (164)-(165).

(164) ka-gaga-n ko si Salang .

Co-giggle-NF 1.S.GEN NOM PN

Salang is my friend.'

(165) sia m-ian do ka-rako-an no wawa .

3.P.NOM AF-exist LOC NF-big-NF GEN sea

‘They are somewhere at sea.'

note: Another prefix expressing ‘sharing the same fate or feature, being fellow so and so' is icia- , e.g., icia-rarakeh ‘fellow senior citizens', icia-kakanakan ‘fellow children', icia-mamavakes ‘fellow women', icia-memehakay ‘fellow men', and icia-tatao ‘fellow people'.

note: akma so (reduplicated form)-root refers to comparison ‘as…as' in (160)-(162). akma so katva-tava ‘as fat as', akma so ka-pia-pia ‘as beautiful as', akma so ka-sir-sirem ‘as dark as'.