as a verbal prefix
has the following five meanings:
(1) In sequential
is added to the sequential verb to mean ‘and then', e.g.,
‘then eat' (as discussed in Section 6.2.3).
ka- means ‘very',
á va ‘very fat' (as
discussed in Section 8.3).
(3) In counting,
ka- is prefixed to express the amount of time, e.g.,
a kawan ‘something takes one
year' (as discussed in Section 9).
Ka- can be prefixed
to verbal roots to indicate ‘just now or only', as illustrated in
(153)-(154). The single complement of the intransitive verb is in
the Genitive case.
(5) When a
ma- verb becomes an
irrealis verb, the prefix
ka- will re-emerge to
indicate its derivational relationship with a
stative verb (Section 188.8.131.52), as in (155).
na am, mi-'oya-'oya.
3.S.GEN PAR AF-RED-angry
‘No sooner had he
arrived than he got angry.'
mo a ji ka manotong?
only-eat 2.S.GEN LIN
NEG 2.S.NOM AF.cook
‘Would you only eat
but not cook?'
ma-ngay do gako,
3.S.NOM AF-go LOC
ya na ka-niahey
no sinsi da
LOC AUX 3.S.GEN
VF-worry GEN teacher 3.P.GEN AUX AF-hit 3.S.LOC
‘He would not have
gone to school if he did not fear that their teacher would hit him.’
locative marker do
‘because' is followed by the irrealis
verb form ka-niahey
. If do
is replaced by the conjuction
‘because', the following verb will be in the
ma-ngay do gako,
ta ya ma-niahey
a bakbak-an no
‘ He went to school because he feared
that their teacher would hit him. ' For
further discussion of irrealis
Austronesian languages, see
Blust (2003). Compare the following pair
of sentences (a) and (b). The irrealis
ka- verb in (a)
indicates non-volitional action or subjunctive mood, whereas the
transitive verb in (b) is volitional and
The patient is
genitive following the irrealis verb in
(a), but nominative following the realis
verb in (b).
ko m-ai do
ya ko ka-rilaw
nimo a ji a-voos.
AUX 1.S.Nom AF-come
LOC AUX 1.S.GEN VF-pity 2.S.GEN LIN NEG SUB-do.alone
‘I would not come
(to accompany you) if it were not for my concern about your lack of
imo a ji a-voos.
AUX 1.S.NOM AF-come
because AUX 1.S.GEN IF-VF-pity 2.S.NOM LIN NEG SUB-do.alone
‘I came (to
accompany you) because I sympathized with your lack of security.'